Jumbo Number Pebbles and Halloween Fun

We borrowed these Jumbo Number Pebbles to play with a few days ago.

Jumbo Number Pebbles

They are lovely to lift and play with, feeling like real pebbles. As with all our pebbles, they are made from a unique stone mix, engraved and painted. The numbers just have to be felt and traced with your finger as you hold them!

Counting

Daisy has a wonderful natural teaching ability and began matching the numbers with the Halloween rubbish (I mean… toys). She was counting in French as she was doing it and encouraging Rose to join in.

Jumbo number pebbles

She then organised the snakes and spiders around the number.

Jumbo number pebbles

Fred on the other hand took pleasure in banging them together with force so they made a satisfying clunk! Each to their own.

Jumbo Number pebbles

Ten scary Halloween things.

As you can see the Jumbo Number Pebbles are strong, like pebbles really. They are open ended, always a favourite in our house, and can be used in many ways. They would be perfect in the sand tray or water table and can be used indoors or outdoors. The sorting, transporting and game options are endless and with two of each number there are plenty to share.

If you like these Jumbo Number Pebbles you may also like:

pebbles

 

 

Montessori Inspired Learning (Part 2)

Who was Maria Montessori?

Maria Montessori was born on 31st August 1870 in Chiavalle, Italy. She started her public schooling with average reports but soon began to excel in math and science. She broke away from the norm by attending the Regio Instituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, unusual for women, with aspirations of becoming an engineer.

Determined to become a doctor, she was initially refused entry to medical school but apparently ended the interview by stating that she knew she would become a doctor. Pope Leo XIII is believed to have intervened on her behalf.

Although medical school was a difficult time for Maria, she was the first woman in Italy to graduate as a licensed medical doctor, from the University of Rome, in 1896.

She worked at the Children’s Hospital while employed at the San Giovanni Hospital, and had a private practice. Many of Montessori’s patients were children from poor families and she concerned herself with their nutrition and comfort as well as their medical ailments.

Montessori’s only child, a son named Mario, was born 31st March 1898. He travelled with her, became her greatest advocate and continued her work after her death.

As part of her job she travelled around the city selecting participants for research from asylums for the insane. She began to make conclusions that many of these children were suffering from sickness, not due to medical reasons but due to their environment and lack of stimulation, pedagogy rather than illness.

She studied the work of two early 19th century Frenchmen, Jean-Mark Itard and Edouard Séguin, his student. Her interest in their work with the ‘wild boy of Aveyron’ led her to translate much of their work. Itard’s sensory work and teaching tools are believed to have inspired Montessori’s teaching.

In 1901 Montessori returned to school to study the mind and took a job in 1904, to the surprise of her colleagues, supervising the education of young children in a housing project for low income families in San Lorenzo slum district.

The first school, La Casa dei Bambini opened January 6th, 1907. By 1908 there were five Casa dei Bambini.The following year Montessori began to train teachers and published her first book, The Montessori Method. It was published in English in 1912 and the 5000 copies published sold out in four days.

By 1915 there were over 100 Montessori schools in the USA and more were opened across the world. In 1947 Maria Montessori spoke to UNESCO on Education and Peace. She was nominated three times for a Nobel Peace Prize but died in 1952 with her son Mario in attendance.

Montessori Philosophy

The early years.

Montessori (1967) believed that a child has an inert need to become independent.  From birth babies choose to face the world and absorb what they find, thus developing their personality. She stated the senses developing first is an example of how children need to absorb their surroundings, the senses are what allows us to take in our environment.

Montessori sees each step in a child’s life as another step towards independence.  She uses terms like “prison” (for child’s inability to walk) and “freedom” for a child learning a skill (such as walking) indicating her strength of feeling towards the need for children to develop life skills towards becoming independent.

Montessori challenged child rearing theories of her time. She believed babies and young children should be with their mothers instead of brought up in a nursery, by a nurse. The need for babies to be with their mothers is emphasized more strongly when Montessori discusses mothers from various continents and how they meet their children’s needs by keeping them close. Carrying a baby around by different methods including slings, bags, and baskets seems to be of great interest to Montessori and she advocates the closeness of the mother and child resulting in happier babies. This is long before Dr William Sears coined the term “Baby-wearing” in a more aggressive manner. Montessori did not suggest mothers carry their babies constantly as she understood the closeness of mother and child meant the child’s needs could be met, consequently children would feel included and join in a social life.

In The Absorbent Mind Montessori (1967) discusses the “Child’s Conquest of Independence” by including and explaining scientific development of the body along with the development of educational training.

She stresses the need to follow nature and as ability develops, so should experiences. As an organ becomes mature it is used (environmental experience) and likewise, as a child’s ability becomes mature, it is used. Montessori based her educational theory on medical knowledge.

Hugo De Vrie’s (as cited in Montessori,1966) study of insects passing through different activities to reach maturation, Watson’s theory of Behaviourism and Coghill’s findings of cycles of behaviour influenced by environment all support Montessori’s importance of the surrounding environment of a developing child.

Language.   

This influence of the surroundings on maturation is of great importance in language development. Montessori expresses a clear need for the child to be helped with language development. She recommends mothers speak to babies in whole sentences instead of repeating a baby’s babble and credits the baby’s inner teacher with helping him to learn language.

“Helpers in the Home” -as nannies were called, could be trained by The Montessori Society in Rome and were given scientific knowledge of language acquisition.

This illustration taken from Montessori (1967) p. 124, demonstrates the attention to detail Montessori had when studying young children. She respected the young child’s development more fervently than her predecessors.

 The-Development-of-Language

The order of language acquisition is made clear, the child understanding conversations long before he can make himself understood. The importance of exposing a child to good examples is made clear by Montessori again, reinforcing the need for a child to be present in adult conversation, if not included.

Movement.

Montessori (1976) expressed the importance of movement to children:

“The greatest of philosophers must use speech or writing to convey his ideas, and this involves muscular movement. What would be the value of his thoughts if he gave them no expression? And this he can only do by making use of his muscles.”  (p. 137)

Children do not yet have the speech to express themselves. Movement serves as their chief means of getting information to us and allows the personality to be expressed. Montessori also deemed movement necessary to mental development. She believed, as we now understand, that movement encourages the brain to develop normally.

Restrictions on this movement can damage the growing brain, hence the need for exercise as a child and physical education to be part of our schools. Montessori even goes as far as to say if parts of the body are over exercised to the detriment of others; the brain may also stay at a low level. She believed movement was necessary to help develop the whole person and allow him to relate well to the outside world.

A child’s ability to move with more control is examined in figure 9, Montessori (1967) p. 149, below:

The-Development-of-Movement

 The development of all four limbs during the first two and a half years is described, two at a time. Montessori wonders (1967) what mankind will do with their developing hands in the future, just as we wonder what our growing children will be doing with their hands in the future. Would Montessori have advocated for continuation of the teaching of handwriting in the curriculum, rather than the common held thought that it should be phased out?

While the feet and legs develop as the child grows and begins to walk, jump and run the hand development is more determined by the activity it is exposed to.

Montessori (1967) p. 151, quotes St Francis of Assisi “Look at these great hills! They are the walls of our temples and the aspiration of our hearts!”  Yet she explains Man’s need to keep his hands busy and express himself through handiwork as St. Francis did when he helped rebuild a church. Through time man has built and created; the Pyramids, the Parthenon, the Colosseum, the manuscripts of the middle ages, artwork of the renaissance. As man’s intellect developed so has his creations. We have a need to express ourselves through our actions and movements, whether they are large movements or the smallest and most intricate.

As children develop the use of their lower limbs they obtain greater freedom and have greater choice over their activities. Allowing a child to walk by themselves instead of being carried gives them the opportunity to explore, gain independence and practice skills. Our idea of walking is different from a child’s as we tend to walk to get somewhere and when we walk with a child we ask them to walk at our pace. A child is often more interested in what he sees as he walks. It is a sensory experience. He wants to stop and touch a flower, jump in a puddle and sit on grass watching a dog run. We need to pace our walk with the child and try to see the world through their eyes. Just as the ancient Greeks would walk, think and talk, using philosophy to put our world to rights, our children do so in their own method.

Sensitive periods.

The need for continuous learning is made clear by Montessori’s use of the term “unremitting toil” and “work” is the term used for learning. This is in contradiction to the lives of the upper classes of Montessori’s past. The life of a child is constantly active, and not allowing children to be active can again be termed as holding them in a ‘prison’, restricting their ‘freedom’. She believed holding a child back from being active was setting them up to be degenerate adults, unable to give their most due to learned habits from childhood.

Montessori urges children have to complete a task “cycles of activity” and explains the need for children to complete a cycle. What we see as strange; carrying an overly heavy object or climbing the stairs again and again is described as a cycle of activity that a child needs to do, to develop normally. Not being able to complete these cycles of activity are what leads children to have, what Montessori terms as “deviations” and we today would probably label with ADD, ADHD, Autism or a Special Need. Children will often choose cycles of activity which require great exertion but this energy expelled is believed to prepare mind, body and spirit for an adult life of social interaction.

Montessori took Hugo de Vries’ discovery of sensitive periods in animals and applied his theories with children discovering they also have period of intense growth when a particular trait needed to be perfected. Montessori (1966) noticed that a child works in a dedicated manner during a sensitive period and only becomes tired once a goal is attained. She reasons, that many childish tantrums are due to the needs of a child not being met during a sensitive period and urges us to analyse each tantrum to better understand the child’s soul and need for peace.

Periods of Growth

Age 0-3: Psychoembryonic Period; Full of changes, sensory based, functions are created, memories are forgotten.

Age 3-6: Constructive Perfectionment Period: Sensory and hands are busy, “the blessed age of play” functions are developed, conscious

Age 6-12: Growth is visible: Children are calm, happy and stable, milk teeth are lost and adult teeth grow.

Age 12-18: Growth is less visible; children are less calm and stable, a sign of indiscipline and rebellion, physical health is less stable and yet children are made to sit for longer periods of inactivity.

Montessori believed that the period of growth between the years of 0-6 which was often overlooked by past theory was the most important. It is when intellect and psychic powers are formed. The thought that a baby started life with nothing and developed powers to talk, walk and a sense of will and knowledge were created, fascinated Montessori. This led to a lifetime of study and work with this age group.

Montessori Learning

It is made clear that we, as mere parents, are not expected to have the knowledge Montessori (1966) has as a doctor and scientist. “One must simply have the desire to help the child and a fund of common sense.” (p.48). Instead of hanging a mobile over the crib, leading to an awkward position for the baby, she suggests placing the baby on an incline so they can see more of the room and be entertained. A garden with flowers and birds is even more preferable. Rather than moving the baby every day, the same spot allows the child to recognize objects and experiences, learning about their environment.

Children like a sense of order and so their surroundings should be ordered with everything in its place. A story of a young child of six months becoming upset by an umbrella out of place in The Secret of Childhood, (p. 50) serves as a reminder of how much children crave order. Piaget’s experiment with his son and a hidden object is mentioned (p. 51) as another example of how children like order. His son was not interested in where Piaget had moved the object but only that it was not in its home and that it should be there.

The senses are of great importance in Montessori (1966) teaching. The ancient saying “there is nothing in the intellect which was not first in some way applied to the senses,” (p. 60) applies in all of Montessori teaching.  The need for babies to explore and use their senses is immense and interrupting a child’s reflection hinders what Montessori refers to as the inner toil which develops greater awareness and inner harmony. A child stopping to watch an ant carry its load is an example of something an adult may overlook but which will keep a child fascinated for hours.

As mentioned, tantrums were believed to be detrimental to the child’s development. Montessori’s (1966) theory was that a tantrum was sign of an internal struggle and the inner psyche trying to reveal itself.  “A tantrum is like a storm that prevents the soul of the child from coming out of its hidden retreat and showing itself to the world. “ (p. 109). She entrusts educators with the job of knowing the child and freeing it from any entanglements. Our job is to open the door and allow the child to pass through into self realization. We can do this by providing an environment conducive to a child’s growth, means to exercise activities and limited obstacles.

Characteristics of Casa dei Bambini (Children’s Home) Montessori (1966)

  1. Main aim is to discover and free the child.
  2. Inspired with the thoughts of John the Baptist “He must increase, I must decrease” (p.111) the teacher’s role is to be passive, removing his authority as an obstacle.
  3. Respect for the child’s personality is highly emphasized

Montessori observed how the children flourished in their new surroundings. They seemed to love learning a new task and repeated it again and again. Montessori (1966) once counted the number of times a young child of three completed an activity of putting cylinders into correct holes. After forty-three times the child “stopped as if coming out of a dream and smiled happily.” (p. 119) Montessori wondered why she had finished after forty-three times and what was finished.

As confidence grew in the school, the children went from learning set activities to having free choice. This led to cupboards being at child height so a child could access their own materials. They showed individual preference and liked to return to the same activity repeatedly.

Birch/Plywood Adjustable Shelving Storage Unit

Rewards and Punishments were initially used by the teacher at La Case dei Bambini but when it became clear the children were neither interested in the rewards nor shamed by the punishments, both were observed for some time, and eventually dropped completely.

The ‘exercise of silence’ began with a visit from a content four month old baby but quickly became part of the daily routine. Allowing the children to have quiet time and only making this time within the capabilities of the children resulted in children walking and running to the teacher with great accuracy and gross motor control.

The dignity and respect Montessori had for her students affected them greatly. They learned to respect their peers and adults and visitors to the school were amazed at the composure of the children. “Their self-possession could be attributed to their immediate and perfect adaptation to their environment” (p. 128)

At the prompting of some illiterate parents, Montessori began to teach letters and sounds using cardboard letters for forming words and sandpaper letters for tracing. The enthusiasm from the children led to writing and reading. Sandpaper letters and numbers and the use of kinaesthetic materials for teaching number and letter formation are popular today, as teachers recognize the value in having children feel the movement of a letter.

Tactile Letters Kit

In this picture taken from The Montessori Method (1912) children can be seen working independently on activities.

1912

 

Some are at a table and other on the floor, a common sight in Montessori school. The sense of calm and eager learning can be felt from the picture as children happily complete their work.

30" x 48" Hardwood Rectangular Table

Montessori’s method now exists in most preschool and early elementary classrooms in varying degrees. We take it for granted that children will be working at small tables and chairs, some will work on the floor and a certain level of independence will be endowed.

In Montessori’s time this was not the norm. She pioneered a great change in early child learning and development and is not often given credit for this. Student motivation was not talked about directly by Montessori but her explanation of the intrinsic need to ‘work’ without reward is detailed.

Her method, only touched on briefly in this essay, is detailed and her learning materials, used all over the world, are still very relevant today.

Her advice to teachers in The Secret of Childhood (1966) is a mantra to us all, as teachers;

“We must be humble and root out the prejudices lurking in our heart. We must not suppress those traits which can help us in our teaching, but we must check those inner attitudes characteristic of adults that can hinder our misunderstanding of a child.” (p.153).

We must be aware of our shortcomings and strive to ensure they do not interfere with our ability to encourage every child, to meet their full potential.

References

Anon, A Biography of Dr Maria Montessori, Montessori Australia. Retrieved from    http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

Montessori, M. (1912) The Montessori Method  Translated by Anne Everett George New York, NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/montessori/method/method.html

Montessori, M. (1966) The Secret of Childhood. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Grp

Montessori, M. (1967) The Absorbent Mind. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Murray, A. K. (2011) Montessori Elementary Philosophy Reflects Current Motivation Theories, Montessori Life, Vol. 23, No. 1, 22-33

Thayer-Bacon,B. (2011) Maria Montessori: Education for Peace, In Factis Pax, Vol. 5, No. 3, 307-319 Retrieved from http://www.infactispax.org/journal/

Thayer-Bacon,B. (2012) Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick, Education and Culture, Vol. 28, No. 1, 3-20 Retrieved from http://www.muse.jhu.edu/journals/eac/summary/v028/28.1thayer-bacon.html

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Maria Montessori. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori

Wood, D. (1988) How Children Think and Learn. Oxford, Blackwell Pub. Ltd.

Have a look at Quality Classrooms’ selection of resources suitable for Montessori here.

Arctic Play with Bubber

Between working for Quality Classrooms and studying for my Masters in Education the blog posts have become fewer. The flowers; Daisy and Rose went into full time daycare for the first time last September. As a result, opportunities to schedule structured activities have slipped. I need a reminder… mama, stop and play!

Last night I set up an play invitation, using

The flowers were hopping up and down with excitement as I set up the tray, requesting to play.

Arctic-Play-with-BubberAnd they got straight into serious play!

Hands-in-bubber

Daisy made a den for the wolves and Rose’s animals began to fight and scold each other, the whale hit the rabbit with its tail.

A great conversation started on who ate who, and we were able to discuss how some animals are eaten by humans and people living in the Arctic often use the skin of the animals for clothing and shoes as well as other parts of the animal. I introduced the terms herbivore, carnivore and Inuit.

We also talked about how the animals are built to live in such a cold climate with warm fur, sometimes even on their feet.

Detail-on-figuresThe detail on the figures is wonderful. Here the people are making their way back to their igloo (scale doesn’t seem to be an issue when you are 3 and 6).

Snow-wonderlandThe wolves stuck together during play. Daisy declared they were mama and baby.

Wolf-denThe wolf den.

Hiding-bunnyCan you spot the bunny Rose put to sleep?

Putting-the-animals-to-sleeAs the play was winding up the girls put all the animals to sleep. For Daisy this meant laying them on their side. For Rose it involved covering them with Bubber.

And the light on the light table was turned out.

A much more relaxed mama was able to go put her flowers to bed and work on an assignment!

St Paddies Day Bubber Play

Yesterday I pulled out the green Bubber and some fun additions including Bright Buttons, Coloured Flat Wooden Shapes and some stems.

Bubber

I put it all in a box and made it look pretty (forgot to take a photo) and the first thing the girls did was pull everything onto the table to play. When it comes to Bubber, it doesn’t need to be organised; once you feel the stuff you just want to play!

Bubber

Rose enjoyed using the buttons and a few other green things I had thrown in the box, to make prints in the Bubber.

happy

Bubber

Daisy was more into using the Bubber as a base for building on top of.

Bubber

“Blow out the candle on your cake” she requested.

Bubber

The Green House!

The added bonus with Bubber is that it doesn’t weld itself into the carpet as play dough does. It does not dry out and all you need is a dustpan and brush to clean it up.

Need I say more?

Number Fun Ducks and Water Play

With there not being a chance of getting a pool outside for months, we have been enjoying water play inside, in other ways.

Number Fun ducks

These include learning to dry non breakable dishes, playing in the bath and sensory water tub play using:

Water has such a wonderful, calming affect on Rose in particular. She is 2 1/2 and often struggles with temper and sensory overload. Water provides a break for her. She can focus on the feeling of water running through her fingers, play with the effects water has on objects and enjoy listening to the sounds made by moving water. The conversations that come from water play are great!

IMG_2802

Here she is organsing her ‘ducks in a row’ and talking to them. Counting the dots on the duck’s back helps her remember number order and associate oral numbers with physical counts. The number figure on the bottom is more useful for Daisy who is currently working on number formation.

Ideas for Setting up Water Play

Memory Match Clams

  • Sort objects in water by colour, shape, size, weight etc.
  • Investigate which container holds more
  • Go fishing

  • Give a doll a bath

Ocean Miniature Animal Tube

 

Whatever you are doing at the water centre have fun and enjoy the conversations!

 

 

Happy New Year- smelling of pine needles

I hope you have had a wonderful Christmas break and are ready to jump into 2012. We have jumped in feet first and are loving it, after a rather sickly Christmas. I decided to take a blogging break between Christmas and New Year and good job; we were all sick. Here’s to a healthy and happy 2012.

On New Years Eve we took down our beautiful Christmas tree and decorations and were left with quite the sweet smelling mess.

I brushed a wee bit up and left the rest for the vacuum to digest. If you are asking the question in your head “What did they do to their tree?” The answer is; yes we did water it but apparently it did not appreciate being inside and decided to shed from day one anyway. My mum’s suggestion was to make a huge tree skirt to catch all the needles, as we obviously did not water it enough! Ta mum.

I put the needles in a box. Added and few treats, placed it on the light table and we had a new years activity to keep the flowers amused.

Rose finds her noise maker. We had one we brought back from Ghana but here are instructions on how to make one with kids.

Daisy had a wood block also brought from West Africa. Here she is trying to blow up balloons. We had fun blowing them up and letting them go.

I included:

  • balloons
  • choclate teddy bears
  • chocolate kisses and hugs
  • noise makers
  • bubbles

Rose hunts for chocolate. She managed to eat a head of her teddy before I noticed, again!

Daisy blows bubbles for her sister to catch.

Balloon volley ball.

Rose was a wee bit scared of the balloons. She howled when she saw me blowing one up but then seemed happy to play with it inflated. I guess the act of blowing up a balloon could look pretty scary.

So we had a great evening with the girls and wonderful friends. The chocolate has been eaten and when I need a reminder of Christmas, I can pull out the pine needles and let the girls play with their smelly pine needle sensory box.

30 Days to Hands on Play – Day 10-15

Pour milk in a shallow tray, add food coloring in the center. Dip a Q-Tip in dish soap and touch the center of the milk and watch it spread.
This was the suggestion from the list of ideas provided by Hands on as we Grow and we had a lot of fun doing it. Here is what we did.
We combined these together and just played in the back yard. Field trips go out the window in winter here or they are limited.
Our first decent amount of snow.
A baby snow angel also a first for this year.
Kisses from Penny the dog.
Climbing the play structure. The joys to wearing a snowsuit- padding when you fall.
Crayons, stickers, paper.
Look mummy!
Rose enjoyed this too. As for Francois; he was very proud of his art work. Daisy and Papa worked for nearly half an hour on their art.
This was a lot of fun for Daisy and myself. Check it out here.
The invitation
Rose played with the coffee can and used it like a drum but then wandered off.
There was better fun to be had with other junk; our left over megadoodle.
The cat joined in playing hide and seek under the paper.
Ripping, tearing, flinging, hiding.
And of course another popular recycled activity. This is Rose’s favourite game at the minute. She is even asking for “pom pom”.